In nature, aphids are represented by 4,000 species, and every year scientists discover more and more. These are small omnivorous sucking pests of the suborder Aphidinea, up to 5 millimeters long, with thin legs, a delicate cover and various colors: yellow, green, black, whitish or brown.
In gardens, vegetable gardens and greenhouses, they poison the life of summer residents and flower growers, affecting many cultures, including bulbous flowers - more on this page!
Bulbous aphids are often called black aphids (although they are not necessarily black). In addition to bulbous, black aphid prefers legumes and cornflower.
Consequently, aphids have three vulnerable periods when their extermination will contribute to a numerical decrease in their population: autumn preparation for winter, the period of emergence of the settler and the appearance of males with wings. Of course, this does not mean that the rest of the time there is no need to process the greenhouse. Nation takes place every 2 weeks. These are periods of maximum damage. Therefore, during these periods, attention and processing of plants are necessary.
Why aphids are dangerous
Any kind of aphid is dangerous due to the aggressive way of its feeding. These pests can be a real disaster for greenhouses and a headache for both the gardener and the grower.
With its invasion, young as well as mature plants die very soon. Countless insidious individuals damage the leaves, giving access to bacteria that cause rotting. They draw from the tissues all the forces of the plant, which give it growth and nutrition. As a result, the flower culture is slowly dying.
The parasites spread especially quickly in a closed greenhouse space, multiplying in an incomplete cycle: first, females appear, laying the larvae on the leaves. These larvae grow up quickly and give birth to new females. One female champion can produce up to 150 larvae.
Read more about aphids here!
The aphids' particular interest in bell pepper is due to its juiciness.
There are many species of this insect, in most cases the peppers are attacked by the peach aphid. In greenhouse conditions, females do not lay eggs, producing larvae at once.
It is difficult to detect the appearance of aphids on plants at the initial stage: insects are located on the lower surface of the leaves.
Only having multiplied enough, they populate the visible side of the leaf, and then the stem.
Therefore, gardeners often detect a pest attack at a late stage, when it has become widespread.
A characteristic feature is the appearance of a white sticky substance on the bushes. These are the waste products of aphids - the so-called sweetish decay.
It does double harm:
- It serves as food for various insects, and above all ants, therefore it attracts them in large quantities.
- By covering the plant, it prevents moisture evaporation, respiration and the consumption of sunlight, which causes the bush to deteriorate.
In the later stages, such unpleasant signs are observed:
- the leaves are speckled with small holes;
- some leaf plates are curled;
- flowers dry out;
- fruits are deformed;
- in case of mass destruction, the death of plants.
The negative effect of aphids is aggravated by fungal diseases that are actively developing on a weakened plant. Therefore, it is very important to start the fight as early as possible, using the most effective means.
Aphids in the greenhouse are almost invisible to the eye. First, the aphid settles on the lower part of the leaves, and only then on the buds and young shoots. It sucks out the vital juices from them, as a result of which the leaves curl, the shoots grow poorly, the pedicels are bent, the buds dry out without blooming. In bulbous perennials, in addition to the ground part, the bulb itself is also damaged.
At the same time, pests secrete sugary excrement, "honey pad", which spreads freely throughout the plant, attracting ants, wasps, flies and bees. A sedentary aphid is in symbiosis with ants, supplying them with food, and ants protect it and transfer it to a new place (this applies to wingless individuals).
Aphid species and how they affect plants
Aphids are a pest that reproduces by egg production. Aphids are winged and wingless. Insects are very small - from 2 to 8 millimeters in size. Aphids have small proboscis, with the help of which they "suck" useful substances and sap from the plant, moreover, aphids are a carrier of infectious plant diseases.
There are several varieties of aphids:
Fitoferm is absolutely safe for plants in a greenhouse, but effective against aphids.
- Melon aphid. This is a species of aphid that mainly affects pumpkin crops, squash and cucumbers. Aphids appear, as a rule, at the tips of the leaves, spreading in the direction of the leaf, towards the stem. The leaves of the plant curl and disappear, and the inflorescences crumble. The melon aphid is dangerous because it does not die during the winter period, but successfully hibernates until the next harvest on dry grass of weeds and on fallen leaves. For a year of life, the melon aphid is able to breed about 20 generations of insects. The melon aphid is "afraid" of tomatoes. Aphids practically do not exist on the leaves and ovaries of this plant.
- Greenhouse aphid (green peach). This insect infects many types of plants: eggplant, parsley, dill, tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers and potatoes. In addition, greenhouse aphids are a carrier of viral plant diseases. Pests feed on the sap of the leaves, so the leaf deteriorates and turns yellow. Insects can infect plants with more than 100 viruses.
- Potato aphid (common). Aphids are dark blue to gray in color. Aphids of this species are mainly affected by tomatoes. Breeds year-round. Aphids feed on leaf sap. In the autumn-winter period, insects live on the remains of grass and plants, and in the hot summer period they are able to leave the greenhouses in whole colonies.
- Large potato aphid. A favorable climate for an insect is an increased level of humidity in the ground and air. Aphids infect plants in whole colonies. Potatoes and cabbage suffer greatly, as well as tomatoes, peppers, eggplants. The aphid is located on the lower part of the leaves, feeds on the sap of the plant. At first, dark spots appear on the plant, and only then the leaves curl and turn yellow, but the aphids on the leaves are not noticeable.
The conditions of the greenhouse are a favorable place for the reproduction and life of insect pests that can completely destroy the crop. Therefore, it is worth choosing effective pest control methods.
Take a close look at your plants, every last one. If on the back of the leaves, buds, or shoots, numerous colonies of point pests and sticky liquid (pad) are visible, and the old insect skin remains white pieces, then this is a real aphid infection.
But do not try to despair! When pests appear in the greenhouse, immediately start a war with them - use folk remedies, such as: mechanical, ecological (biological) and chemical.
Preventive measures against the appearance of aphids
Folk and industrial remedies help to get rid of greenhouse pests, but do not forget about aphid prevention measures, namely:
- thoroughly clean the soil in the greenhouse from plant residues, rhizomes, leaves before planting the crop and after harvesting it;
- feed the earth with organic substances;
- carry out research of plants for the presence of aphids;
- do not propagate flowers together with vegetables in the greenhouse.
By following the rules and advice of experts in the fight against aphids, you can get a generous greenhouse harvest.
Aphid pest control
It is relatively easy to get rid of aphids in a greenhouse. To do this, spray: you will need a bottle of dishwashing detergent (like "Fairy") and a bottle of 70% food vinegar. For a bucket of water - 10 tsp. vinegar and 3 tbsp. l. liquid for dishes. The procedure can be carried out at any time.
If you have black aphids in your greenhouse, you can manually remove the colony. If only a few aphids have appeared on the plants, remove them with a moistened cotton swab. Cut off badly affected leaves and buds and burn them immediately.
Ants carry aphids inside the greenhouse. Therefore, get rid of them as soon as possible (you can use anti-ants crayons).
Throughout the summer, destroy anthills not only inside the greenhouse, but also around it, in the adjacent area, and in the fall, excavate and fill them with saline or plain water.
In addition, during the season, it is necessary to periodically eliminate weeds, and plant the plants at a distance from each other. And one more thing: be sure to get rid of linden and bird cherry. If you have them in your area, you are not destined to ever get rid of aphids altogether.
From aphids in a greenhouse, treatment with the following uncomplicated infusions will help:
- Celandine - soak in a bucket of water, leave for 2 days 300 g of dry leaves.
- Dandelion - Soak 1 kg of fresh leaves and roots in a bucket of water, leave for 3.5 hours.
- Garlic - pour a pound of chopped garlic into a 3 liter jar, add water, wait 5 days.
- Wood ash soaps - in a bucket of water 2 tablespoons of ash, grated laundry soap.
- Rhubarb - from black aphids.
In addition to the above, water infusions of such plants as marigolds, white mustard, dissected hogweed, creeping bitterweed, tobacco, nettle, garlic, citrus are suitable for waging a war against aphids. Among experienced flower growers, an infusion of pine needles or tops and leaves of tomatoes and potatoes is considered a popular remedy for pests.
In a greenhouse for bulbous flowers, you can use a solution of nitroammofoska (for a bucket of water 3 tbsp. L), in addition, it is a top dressing.
Aphids will quickly leave, and if the glass of the greenhouse is treated with a solution of copper sulfate. To be sure, you can still set fire to the sulfur saber.
Read more about folk methods of struggle here!
Biological (or ecological) methods of aphid control include the use of plants and insects that can destroy and repel pests.
ladybug is the most famous aphid exterminator. This cute-looking bug eats more than a hundred parasitic insects per day. It is very beneficial that ladybugs reproduce rather quickly (an individual lays up to 400 eggs). The eggs hatch into larvae, which, in turn, also feed on aphids.
Is not inferior in the hunt for aphids lacewing... This small brown or greenish insect has thin transparent wings. Lacewing larvae are very active all the time after sunset.
Emergency methods of struggle
If the aphid is caught by surprise, then you can overcome it with the following emergency methods:
- Russian ordinary vodka. You need to put a spray on a bottle of the cheapest vodka - and the product is ready! Vodka works great on aphids as a disinfectant.But it is worth considering that alcohol can harm the plant, leaving burns on it;
- Coca Cola. As in the previous recipe, you need to put a spray bottle on the neck of the Coca-Cola and spray the pests with it. Due to the fact that this drink contains phosphoric acid, this fact explains the harmful effect of Coca-Cola on aphids;
- milk and iodine. If, in equal proportions, mix milk and iodine, then you can get the killer No. 1 from aphids. Perhaps this is the most gentle method for the damaged plant.
Signs of aphids in a greenhouse
Aphids are highly fertile, during one season they can give more than 10 generations of wingless and winged individuals. The first of them ensure the reproduction and increase in the number of the colony, the second are looking for a new host plant.
Females and males with wings are capable of flying long distances and settling in new territories. Aphids can fly into the greenhouse during the next airing or get into the greenhouse with young seedlings, with soil, with organic fertilizers.
The pest pierces the green parts of the plant with a thin proboscis and sucks out the juices from it, as a result, the growth and further development of greenhouse and greenhouse crops slows down. You can suspect the invasion of aphids into the greenhouse:
- on deformed stems and pedicels;
- on curling, wrinkling and drying leaves;
- shedding the ovary;
- on the drying out of the buds;
- lack of fruit;
- for damage to bulbs in bulbous perennials;
- by the presence of ants (not always).
In the process of vital activity, the aphid secretes a sugary liquid - honeydew, or honeydew. If the greenhouse is heavily infested, the leaves of the plants will be covered with this sticky substance that attracts other garden pests.
Aphids not only damage plants, suck out nutritious juices and weaken the immune system. It carries pathogens of viral and fungal infections, which in a short time can infect all vegetable and flower crops.
Reasons for the appearance
Aphids can enter the greenhouse in several ways. Sometimes even the precautions taken do not help. You need to start fighting it immediately upon first detection, since many products cannot provide an instant result, and the insect will continue to destroy the crop for several more days.
- During the airing of the greenhouse, small pests can fly in and stay.
- Aphids can be in organic fertilizers, therefore, while feeding the soil in the greenhouse, the pest also penetrates into a new habitat.
- The insect waits out the winter inside the buds of the plant. When planting cuttings, they must be processed. Otherwise, in the spring, many small insects will start in the greenhouse.
- Sometimes the pest enters the greenhouse when soil is applied. He also gets infected.
Aphids in a greenhouse
Of the many species of aphids, only a few can settle in the greenhouse:
- melon or cotton;
- large potato;
- greenhouse or tobacco.
The speed at which aphids spread is amazing. Therefore, the longer there are no measures to destroy it, the more damage will be done.
Of the several thousand varieties of aphids in greenhouse farms, one can most often find green peach, melon, potato, foxglove and root aphids.
Green peach aphid
This species has several names: green peach, greenhouse or tobacco aphid. Adults reach 1.9-2.5 mm in length. One female lays 5-10 black, shiny oval-elongated eggs. Up to 14 generations occur per year, that is, 14 generations can appear during one season.
The primary host of aphids is peach trees, but insects are omnivorous and use more than 400 crops as secondary hosts.In the greenhouse, different forms of the pest can simultaneously develop, which differ in purpose, color (black, green and black-green), the presence or absence of wings. The favorable temperature for the life and reproduction of the peach aphid is + 24 ° C.
Melon, or cotton, aphid damages cotton, melons and gourds, fruit and berry trees and shrubs, citrus fruits, beets, peanuts, tobacco, sesame seeds, and other garden and greenhouse plants. Females of this species lay up to 40 eggs at a time, and up to 20 generations of insects appear per season.
In colonies of melon aphids, several forms can simultaneously develop: winged black-green, wingless green, wingless with a transparent body and dark spots. The standard size of insects varies from 1.3 to 2.1 mm. The cotton variety is distinguished by its high vitality: it is capable of multiplying at 0 ... -5 ° C, and can easily endure frosts down to -10 ° C. Natural death of individuals occurs only when the temperature drops to -15 ° C and below.
Melon or cotton aphids are a frequent "guest" in greenhouses and hotbeds.
No less prolific is the foxglove variety, which is sometimes called the greenhouse potato aphid. Individuals of different sexes have a pale green color with a characteristic shine and black marks located at the joints of the antennae and limbs.
Varieties of greenhouse aphids
Aphids are small (up to 5 mm) insects with thin legs and rather delicate integuments. Thanks to the piercing-sucking mouth apparatus, she uses the cell sap of plants as food. As a result, the leaves begin to wither and sag. Young shoots are deformed, the surface of the leaf plates becomes sticky and shiny. This leads to shedding of the ovaries and inhibition of plant growth.
On a note!
Usually in greenhouses there are potato, greenhouse, melon, root, and sometimes currant aphids. Representatives of all these species are able to winter in a greenhouse and even develop.
Methods and means of combating aphids in greenhouses and greenhouses
A small colony of a garden pest can be destroyed manually:
- Remove insects from infected vegetables or flowers with a moistened swab or tissue.
- Leaves and buds, densely covered with aphids, cut off.
- The collected individuals, together with the trimmed parts of the plants, are immediately burned.
If the aphid population has attacked 20-25% of greenhouse plants, you will have to use folk methods, chemical or biological means.
Shop insecticides based on pyrethroids, neonicotinoids, cypermethrin, organophosphates and other compounds have a systemic effect, that is, after treatment, all forms of parasites die - eggs, larvae, nymphs and adults.
The specialized store offers a wide range of aphid control products.
It is recommended to purchase effective chemicals that will help remove aphids:
|Active substance||Name of drugs|
|Imidacloprid||Biotlin, Confidor, Corado, Commander|
|Cypermethrin||Arrivo, Accord, AltAlf, Alphazin, Kinmix, Inta-Vir, Taran, Sharpei, Tsunami, Fury|
You must use the listed insecticides strictly according to the instructions on the package. To avoid resistance (addiction of insects to the composition), it is recommended to alternate preparations, each time using the product with a different active substance. For example, the first time to spray vegetables with Biotlin, the second time - Inta-Vir, the third time - Decis Profi.
Biological products from the avermectin group are considered safer. They are harmless to beneficial insects, birds, animals and humans, so they can be used not only during the growing season, but also during the formation of ovaries and harvesting.The active components of such funds have intestinal and contact effects, leaving no chance of salvation for winged and wingless aphids.
There are many analogues of biological preparations for aphids on sale now.
Popular remedies that can be used to remove aphids and other pests:
Biological means of destroying the pest population are insects - natural enemies of aphids:
- hover fly.
These bugs will happily eat aphids and will not harm vegetables, flowers and greenery. If you catch a few lacewings or ladybirds in a garden or meadow and run a few lacewings or ladybirds into the greenhouse, they will help reduce the number of pests several times. Earwigs prefer moist places; to attract them, it is useful to spread sawdust or tree bark in the greenhouse, form small piles of them or sprinkle paths, pour abundantly with water.
Infusions and solutions made from phyto-raw materials and detergents are no less effective against aphids:
- Wood ash. Pour 300 g of ash with 10 liters of water, boil for 30 minutes, cool to ambient temperature.
- Soap solution. In 10 liters of hot water, dissolve 125 ml of liquid soap or a whole bar of household, chopped on a grater. Refrigerate and use as directed.
- Garlic. Peel and chop 3 heads of garlic, pour 1 liter of water and remove to a dark place. After 4-5 days, strain the infusion. For spraying 2 tbsp. l. dilute the garlic concentrate in 5 liters of water.
- Onion peel. Pour boiling water over ½ bucket of husk and leave for 24 hours. The next day, strain and add enough water to make 10 liters of working fluid.
- Bitter pepper. Pour 0.5 kg of pepper into 1.5 liters of water and cook over low heat for 1 hour. Leave the broth for 48 hours, then pour it into a glass container made of dark glass or plastic. Before spraying, dilute in a proportion of 1 glass of infusion per 10 liters of water.
- Wormwood, yarrow, celandine, tansy, dandelion. Flowers, stems and leaves of plants can be used as raw materials - pour water at the rate of 1 part of phyto-raw materials per 10 parts of water and leave for 48 hours.
- Pine needles. Pour 200 g of fresh needles with 1 liter of water, boil for 30 minutes, then leave for 48 hours in a dark place. Strain the concentrate, add 9 liters of water, process the vegetables with the resulting solution.
- Ground red pepper. Powder the leaves of infected plants with a ready-made powder.
The cost of traditional methods is low, and most of the necessary ingredients are easy to find in every home.
You need to spray the plants several times, evenly covering the green parts of the plants. For better adhesion of the working fluid to the leaves and stems, it is recommended to add liquid soap to it at the rate of 40 ml per 10 liters of water.
Fighting aphids using folk methods does not give an instant effect. To completely destroy the pest population, you will have to spray the plants and soil in the beds at least 2-3 times. However, solutions prepared according to folk recipes are harmless to humans and animals, do not inhibit plants and beneficial microorganisms, and do not disturb the composition of the soil.
How to treat a greenhouse from aphids in spring - the use of insecticides
Aphid populations are difficult to control with insecticides for a number of reasons. Failures can be due to poor application technique, insufficient coverage, or high pH in the spray tank. Unfortunately, many gardeners do not pay attention to these subtleties and in vain.
When trying to treat aphids with chemicals, you need to remember that:
- If aphids are present on the flowers of plants whose fruits are used for food, insecticide treatment can be dangerous and, moreover, not very effective.
- In the spring, the first generation of aphids only crawls closer to fresh foliage, so spraying with insecticides will give the effect of firing a cannon at the sparrows.
- Aphids can be difficult to reach if they are on the underside of leaves, especially those close to the soil, as is the case with foxglove aphids.
- Among populations of peach aphid, resistance to organophosphates, carbamates and pyrethroids has been reported.
- The winged forms of the melon aphid are more resistant to the action of organophosphate pesticides than its wingless forms.
- Treating the root of the plant with chemicals may be more effective as aphids tend to ingest large amounts of plant sap, especially in the spring.
We really hope that the information in this article will help all beginners and experienced gardeners to get the aphids out of their greenhouse. In conclusion, I would like to note that if there are no perennial weeds, their roots, and shrubs do not grow in the greenhouse, then in order to prevent the appearance of aphids here, it will be quite enough to observe its penetration through the introduction with seedlings, fly into unprotected windows and doors, and also on your clothes. We wish you only high yields!
All measures aimed at preventing the appearance of aphids can be divided into 4 groups: greenhouse disinfection, ant control, preventive treatments, agrotechnical and organizational methods.
In order not to look in the future for ways of how to properly deal with aphids, it is necessary to carry out timely prevention.
It is recommended to disinfect the greenhouse in the fall, when the entire crop has been harvested. For the treatment of the internal space, you can use the following:
- Copper sulfate. Dilute the substance with water at the rate of 1 tbsp. l per 10 liter bucket. For better dissolution, first pour the powder into 1 liter of hot water, stir vigorously, and then add another 9 liters of cold water. Spray all surfaces (walls, frame, fences, inventory) with a working solution and water the beds abundantly so that the liquid soaks the soil to a depth of 5 cm. Copper sulfate will help to destroy not only aphid larvae, but also phytopathogenic fungi.
- Caustic soda or lime. Dilute in a proportion of 400-500 g of dry matter per 10 liters of water. Spray interior surfaces and work tools.
- Bleaching powder. Spread the powder over the beds, then loosen the soil to a depth of 5-8 cm. The substance with a specific smell will destroy both larvae and adults of aphids.
- Karbofos. Dilute in a concentration of 30 g per 10 liters of cold water. Spill the soil with the prepared solution until it is completely moistened.
- Fufanon. Use in the same way as described in item 4. Prepare the working fluid in the ratio of 10 ml of the drug to 10 liters of cool water.
- Tobacco checkers (Hephaestus). In the spring and autumn, fumigate the greenhouse, following the instructions for the product. Use several times per season if necessary.
- Sulfur checkers (FAS, Climate, Pawn). Use only after harvesting and preparing the greenhouse for wintering. Do not use during the growth and fruiting of vegetable crops.
What are the pests in the greenhouse
Plants damaged by diseases and pests become a dangerous source of the spread of infectious diseases, quickly infect nearby growing crops, which leads to loss of yield. Therefore, at the slightest sign of infection, it is necessary to disinfect it in the greenhouse.
The general treatment of greenhouses in the fall from diseases is carried out using fungicides and insecticides - dangerous chemical compounds not only for plants, but also for humans. Preparations for processing are diluted strictly according to the instructions, all work is carried out in compliance with personal safety standards: in tight clothing and a respirator.
What are the pests in the greenhouse
Woodlice, woodlice, two-legged perforate leaves and eat seedlings before they get stronger. It will save you from parasites if you scatter metaldehyde granules over the beds.
The fungi Pythium and Phytoph-thora induce black leg disease.Infection is facilitated by too abundant watering and thickening of the planting, to eradicate the source, it is necessary to thin out the plants, replace the infected soil with sterilized soil, the foci of the disease are well shed, treated with a solution of zineb or captan.
Blackleg affects greenhouse seedlings and mature shrubs
Xanthomo-nas begoniae - vascular bacteriosis leads to wilting of seedlings and mature plants. Phytophilic mites deform the leaves. Larvae of furrow weevil eat tubers and roots, planting withers and dies. The addition of dursban, naphthalene, chlorpyrifos to the greenhouse will save here.
Plant damaged by vascular bacteriosis
Leafworm caterpillars constantly live in greenhouses, a sign of their appearance is twisted sheets in a cobweb. Cunning insects hide inside and destroy plants. The processing of the greenhouse with chlorophos, actelik will help. Scattering of metaldehyde will save you from other types of caterpillars.
In addition to treating the greenhouse with chemicals, the caterpillar is collected by hand.
The mob indicates the presence of sucking parasites in the greenhouse: whitefly, aphids, scale insects, mealybugs settle on the back of the leaves and secrete honeydew, which drips down and infects the rest of the leaves. It will help washing the mobile with a rag, airing, extermination of insects.
Whitefly is the main enemy of cucumbers and garden grapes
The spider mite is a harmful dangerous inhabitant of all greenhouses. It multiplies rapidly, develops strong immunity against neutralization drugs. The best method of control is to prevent the soil for the winter, if the pest is still wound up, the most effective way to get rid of the spider mite in the greenhouse is to gently twist the bush, pull it out by the roots, put it in a plastic bag, take it out, burn it. Opponents of radical methods may disagree, offering many recipes for how to treat a greenhouse from a spider mite, but as practice shows, the struggle ends in defeat for vegetable growers. It is not completely possible to neutralize it in the greenhouse; a few days after processing, the signs of a tick appear again.
It looks like a plant affected by a spider mite
Fulvia fulva causes brown leaf spot. Above - yellow spots, below - brown mushrooms. With the development of the disease, gray rot is affected. Ventilation of the greenhouse and treatment with benomyl, cinebo, ditan M-45 will help to neutralize the infection, repeat after 2 weeks to consolidate the result.
We observe the plants and detect signs of aphid infestation in time
The fact that greenhouse crops have already been chosen by a colony of aphids is easy to notice from the state of the plants:
- leaves begin to dry out and curl;
- white small insects sit on the back of the leaf;
- there are sticky marks on the top of the leaves;
- the growth of shoots stops, and their tips are bent;
- the ovary freezes without opening the buds.
If aphids start in the greenhouse, it means that ants are not far away. They "work" as a duet: the ants protect the aphids, because it serves them as food. And if the ants will not touch the cucumbers, then you can forget about the greenhouse strawberries.
Aphids can appear at any stage of growing greenhouse plants, so greenhouse processing does not always help. With the ability to fly, insects can get inside when ventilated. They can also be "brought" along with the soil, seedlings or organic fertilizers.
Signs of presence and harm done
Aphids are sucking pests. It feeds on the sap of leaves and shoots. In the course of life, it secretes pad - substances saturated with sugars.
It is quite simple to understand that cucumbers or tomatoes are affected by aphids - small insects will swarm under each young leaf.
In addition, the following are observed in the greenhouse:
- deformed shoots;
- twisted leaves;
- sticky marks on green fabrics.
Indirect signs will be:
- the appearance of ants;
- slowdown in growth;
- absence or shedding of the ovary.
The weakening of tomatoes and cucumbers in the greenhouse as a result of aphid infestation has many consequences:
- The slowdown in growth, shedding of the ovary significantly affects the future harvest of tomatoes or cucumbers in the greenhouse.
- Weakened immunity makes them vulnerable to disease. Aphids carry viruses, fungi parasitize on sugary secretions. If you do not fight aphids, then greenhouse crops will quickly die.
How to get rid of aphids in a greenhouse with folk remedies
If you notice the problem in time, while the insects have not yet had time to multiply to catastrophic proportions, folk methods will help. It is a cheap and sustainable option for the harvest. Plants can be sprayed with various herbal tinctures with a specific odor that aphids cannot tolerate. The grass should be pre-chopped, filled with water, insisted for a couple of hours and filtered. Tinctures from:
- needles and tobacco dust.
Spraying with an ash and soap solution also gives a good effect.
To such a cardinal measure, I advise you to apply only when the greenhouse is completely populated with parasites. You will work with potent poisons that are dangerous for the human body. Therefore, do not forget about closed clothes and shoes, glasses, a respirator, rubber gloves. Act according to the instructions - exceeding the dosage does not always increase the effectiveness of the drug, but it can lead to fatal consequences.
Treatment with phytopreparations
Herbal remedies are drugs made from natural raw materials. They contain plant poisons or viruses, fungi-pathogens, parasitizing in the body of a certain type of insect, causing its death. They can cause serious poisoning or paralyze the nervous system of aphids. At the same time, phytopreparations are harmless to cucumbers, beneficial insects and humans.
Among the most popular and effective are:
- Fitoverm: 4-6 ml per 1 liter of water. For processing, choose the evening hours: moisten the affected stems, leaves on both sides with the composition. A week after that, drip irrigation is prohibited - so as not to wash off the product. It is enough to repeat the treatment with Fitoverm every 15 days.
- "Akarin": 6 ml per 1 liter of water. Planting is sprayed with the tool a day after watering. It is especially effective in hot weather. In a day, the next watering is already possible. To destroy the aphid colony, a single treatment with "Akarin" is enough.
- "Aktofit": 8 ml per 1 liter of water. Leaves are sprayed with the drug, then they are not wetted for 8-10 hours. Harvesting can be done 2 days after treatment. To resist aphids, two sprays with "Aktofit" per season are enough.
To increase the effectiveness of herbal remedies, experienced gardeners are advised to add 1 teaspoon of soap solution to the prepared composition.
Spraying and treating the soil with insecticides
The use of insecticides against cucumbers is not always justified - the plants have a short growing season. Slowly decomposing pesticides will not have time to completely dissolve by the time the zelents ripen, which makes them unsafe to eat.
All effective insecticides can be divided into three categories:
- Organophosphate compounds: Aktellik, Nurel D, Dursban. The harvest becomes safe after 14 days.
- Neonicotinoids: Bombardier, Vector, Confidor, Dantop, Tanrek, Mospilan, Ratibor. Zelentsy are harvested 3 weeks after processing.
- Pyrethroids: Arrivo, Decis, Kinmix, Sherpa, Fury. Cucumbers become edible 2 weeks after spraying.
It makes sense to use potent synthetic compounds when the phytophagous plant has affected more than 1/4 of your greenhouse plantings. Powerful drugs can destroy the pest within a few hours after treatment.But toxic components will remain in plants and fruits for a long time. Therefore, before applying "chemistry" always evaluate the effects of insect control.
Fumigation with a sulfur checker
A sure way to resist an aphid invasion is to fumigate a greenhouse with a sulfur stick. Popular varieties: "Hephaestus", "FAS", "Pawn", "Climate". The method is good for use after harvesting - the aphid goes to winter, but in the spring it wakes up to feast on new young shoots.
The emitted smoke (containing nicotine) is harmful to insect pests. But together with them, it kills beneficial soil bacteria, contributes to the corrosion of the metal structures of the greenhouse.
Aphid chemistry is a reliable remedy
If there are a lot of pests, it is better to use special preparations. Unlike folk remedies, they act faster. But there is also a negative point: such treatments are carried out mainly before the beginning of fruiting. Chemicals tend to accumulate in fruits.
Of chemical preparations, they effectively destroy aphids:
The frequency of processing depends on the specific medium. Therefore, be sure to read the instructions carefully before using.
How to protect greenhouse plants from aphids and other pests - video
Prevention of aphids on cucumbers in a greenhouse
In order not to be left without a significant part of the harvest, I use universal recommendations:
- I choose unpretentious hybrids for planting, varieties that are resistant to the invasion of pests.
- I disinfect cucumber seeds before sowing, I breed only my own seedlings. If I have to purchase seedlings, I carefully examine them and put them in quarantine for several days.
- I maintain a comfortable temperature and humidity for cucumbers.
- I carry out the weeding of the greenhouse in a timely manner - aphids, the ants feel more comfortable in the thickets than in open areas.
Experienced gardeners advise against planting mallows, chrysanthemums, nasturtiums, sunflowers and poppies near greenhouses - these plants are a favorite delicacy of aphids.
Reviews and comments
0 Margarita S. 11/21/2015 18:42 I remember my grandmother getting rid of aphids with the help of tobacco tincture. To do this, she took makhorka and hot water in a ratio of 1:10, insisted for two days. The resulting infusion was boiled for 2 hours, and then cooled and filtered. Before spraying, the grandmother diluted the broth with water (in a ratio of 1: 2), added a solution of laundry soap to it (about 10 g per 1 liter of solution). The resulting solution is quite effective against aphids. Although its effectiveness is unlikely to be compared with modern chemicals. In addition, the tobacco solution is toxic to humans and animals.
0 Nina 12/05/2015 11:26 Last season I got rid of aphids on the advice of a friend with the help of valerian tincture. For this, I dissolved a bottle of tincture in 3 liters of water and sprayed the plants. Then in the summer, at the end of June-beginning of July, I carried out repeated spraying.
0 Natalia 12/30/2015 03:02 AM I treated the plants before sowing and after germination from two leaves with ashes (preferably ashes from tobacco — makhorka), watered every evening with warm water with an infusion of ash, makhorka and snuff, half a package of makhorka and snuff on 10-15 liters of water. Well also helps against aphids medicine - called Trichopolum, dissolve the packaging in 10-15 liters of warm water, water once in the evening in 3-5 days.
0 Diana 1/14/2016 12:58 My many years of experience suggests that only chemistry can get rid of aphids. I use Aliot. I process plants in spring, and pests (including aphids) generally disappear. This drug not only kills pests, but also stimulates the growth of leaves that aphids have eaten.
0 Irina 04/14/2016 15:59 This year we had a record number of aphids just! This is some kind of misfortune, like we comply with all those conditions as usual, but here there is a whole invasion. Insecticides helped and only they.No folk remedies and herbs have had the desired effect.
Aphid wintering place
To fight a pest, you first need to decide where it hibernates. Aphids endure winter in the phase of a fertilized egg, most often near leaf buds on bushes, trees, in the root zone. Since ants and aphids have symbiosis, the insect can survive the winter in an anthill. If the eggs are on the bark or near the buds, they can easily be seen when examining the trees.
The eggs are arranged in groups. On the bark they will look like black shiny fine-grained growths. If branches affected by aphids are found, they must be cut off, burned outside the site, if there is no way to cut the branch, it is necessary to mechanically clean it from the eggs of the parasite, whitewash with a solution of slaked lime.
Interesting! The ants "domesticated" this parasite for their own needs. Aphids, while feeding on vegetable juice, secretes honeydew, which is a delicacy for ants. Therefore, the ants take care of it, transfer it to different plants so that the aphids have more nutrient material.